- Understanding ethical reasoning and ethical principles;
- Understanding the principles of informed consent and surrogate decision-making;
- Understanding the potential dilemma of cultural relativism;
- Weighing risks and benefits of treatments, including potentially inappropriate treatments, and understanding the need for the change of treatment goals as well as for implementing end-of-life care and / or palliative care;
- Handling medical errors;
- Understanding and applying the principles of shared decision-making;
- Understanding the public interest in intensive care ethics, including the need for and the potential risks of research in that field.